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The History
of Neonatology

Information for
Parents, Students and Teachers

Ironically, the history of neonatology begins with innovative French midwives and obstetricians, not with pediatricians. Even after specialized care of infants was introduced to the United States, some of the most influential early practitioners and researchers were obstetricians and anesthesiologists. Another fascinating aspect of the early history of neonatology was the existence of "Incubator Baby Side-Shows" at nearly all of the large expositions or World's Fairs in America over a 40-year period, from the 1898 Trans-Mississipi Exposition in Omaha to the New York World's Fair in 1939. By today's standards, these side-shows seem distasteful and even ludicrous, but they made possible what we would think of as regionalized intensive care for hundreds of premature newborns who would have otherwise perished.

We've listed a number of books and articles on this page that we can recommend as references for further study of the history of neonatology and newborn care. A variety of viewpoints are represented here and no endorsement is implied for any of them. Your suggestions for additional references are welcomed. There are also electronic versions of many classic articles and books about newborn care available on this web site at http://www.neonatology.org/classics/default.html.

General History Books

"The Machine in the Nursery: Incubator Technology and the Origins of Newborn Intensive Care," by Jeffrey P. Baker, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-8018-5173-4.

"History of the Care and Feeding of the Premature Infant," by Thomas E. Cone, Jr., Little Brown and Company, 1985. ISBN 0-316-15256-0.

"Save the Babies," by Richard A. Meckel, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-8018-3879-7.

"Newborn Medicine and Society," by Murdina MacFarquhar Desmond, Eakin Press, 1998. ISBN 1-57168-219-8.

"The Mechanical Baby," by Daniel Beekman, Lawrence Hill and Company, 1977. ISBN 0-88208-073-3.

General History Articles

"Reflections on the Early Years of Neonatology: Paul R. Swyer: The Beginnings of Canadian Neonatology at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto and Reflections on His Early Career," by Corey Nason Reese and Jeff Reese. The e-Journal of Neonatology Research.

"The birth of perinatal medicine in the United Kingdom," by Peter M. Dunn. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006 Dec;11(6):386-97. Epub 2006 Oct 30.

"Development of regionalized perinatal care", by V. Y. Yu and Peter M. Dunn. Semin Neonatol. 2004 Apr;9(2):89-97. Review.

Origins of Neonatal Intensive Care in the U.K., a Witness Seminar held at the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London, on 27 April 1999. Posted here by permission.

"The Evolution of Neonatology," by Alistair G. S. Philip, Pediatric Research, 58(4):799-815, October, 2005.

"Reflections on Errors in Neonatology: I. The 'Hands-Off' Years, 1920-1950," by Alex F. Robertson, Journal of Perinatology, 23:48-55, January/February, 2003.

"Reflections on Errors in Neonatology: II. The 'Heroic' Years, 1950-1970," by Alex F. Robertson, Journal of Perinatology, 23:154-161, March, 2003.

"Reflections on Errors in Neonatology: III. The 'Experienced' Years, 1970-2000," by Alex F. Robertson, Journal of Perinatology, 23:240-249, April/May, 2003.

"The Importance of Iatrogenesis in the Founding of Modern Neonatology," by Billy F. Andrews, Journal of Perinatology 24:671-673, 2004.

"The Role of the French Midwives in Establishing the First Special Care Units for Sick Newborns," by Paul L. Tobas and R. Nelson, Journal of Perinatology 22:75-77, January 2002.

"Milestones in Pediatric Research," by Mary Ellen Avery, Biology of the Neonate 80(Suppl 1):3-6, 2001.

AAP Historical Archives Advisory Committee: American Pediatrics: Milestones at the Millenium from Pediatrics, June, 2001.

"A Decimillennium in Neonatology," by Nicholas M. Nelson, in Journal of Pediatrics 137:731-5, November 2000.

"The Incubator and the Medical Discovery of the Premature Infant," by Jeffrey P. Baker, Journal of Perinatology 20(5):321-328, 2000.

"A Century of Neonatal Medicine," by Richard Lusky, from the on-line version of Minnesota Medicine, December 1999.

"Neonatology," by Mary Ellen Avery, in Pediatrics 102(1):270-271, Supplement: "Pioneers and Modern Ideas," 1998.

"Prematurity as a Public Health Problem: US Policy from the 1920s to the 1960s," by Gerald M. Oppenheimer, in American Journal of Public Health 86(6):870-878, June 1996.

"Overtreatment of Neonates? A Personal Retrospective," by William A. Silverman, Pediatrics 90(6):971-976, December 1992.

"A 50-year Overview of Perinatal Medicine," by Mary Ellen Avery, in Early Human Development, 29:43-50, 1992.

"The Incubator Controversy: Pediatricians and the Origins of Premature Infant Technology in the United States, 1890 to 1910," by Jeffrey P. Baker, in Pediatrics 87(5):654-662, May 1991.

"A Review of Newborn Medicine in America: European Past and Guiding Ideology," by Murdina M. Desmond, American Journal of Perinatology 8(5):308-322, September 1991.

"Neonatal Pediatrics at the Century Mark," by William Silverman, in Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 32(2):159-170, 1989.

"Historical Perspective," by Thomas E. Cone, Jr., Medical Instrumentation 21(1):3-10, 1987.

"Hospitals and Pediatrics," by Samuel X. Radbill, Bulletin of the History of Medicine 53:286-291, 1979.

"Evolution of Premature Infant Care," by Ethel C. Dunham, Annales Paediatriae Fenniae 3:170-184, 1957.

"Medical Inflation," By William A. Silverman, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 23(4):617-37, Summer 1980.

"The Valley of the Shadow of Birth," by Clement A. Smith, American Journal of Diseases of Children 82:171-201, 1951.

Historical Articles about Caregivers

"Virginia Apgar and the Newborn Apgar Score," by Thomas F. Baskett, Resuscitation 47:215-217, 2000.

"The History of the Neonatal Nurse Practitioner in the United States," by Ann L. Farah et al, Neonatal Network 15(5):11-21, August 1996.

"John Whitridge Williams, MD (1866-1931) of Baltimore: pioneer of academic obstetrics," by Peter M. Dunn. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2007 Jan;92(1):F74-7.

"Drs Richard Evanson (1800-1871) and Henry Maunsell (1806-1879) of Dublin and their paediatric text," by Peter M. Dunn. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2006 Nov;91(6):F460-2.

"Paul Portal (1630-1703), man-midwife of Paris," by Peter M. Dunn. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2006 Sep;91(5):F385-7.

"Sir Frederic Still (1868-1941): the father of British paediatrics," by Peter M. Dunn. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2006 Jul;91(4):F308-10.

"Adolphe Pinard (1844-1934) of Paris and intrauterine paediatric care," by Peter M. Dunn. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2006 May;91(3):F231-2.

"Michael Underwood, MD (1737-1820): physician-accoucheur of London," by Peter M. Dunn. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2006 Mar;91(2):F150-2.

"Aristotle (384-322 BC): philosopher and scientist of ancient Greece," by Peter M. Dunn. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2006 Jan;91(1):F75-7.

"J Clifton Edgar (1859-1939) of New York and his obstetric text," by Peter M. Dunn. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 Sep;90(5):F441-3.

"Sir George Newman, MD (1870-1948) and the prevention of perinatal disease," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 90: F278-280

"Dr Alfred Velpeau (1795-1867) of Tours: the umbilical cord and birth asphyxia," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 90: F184-186

"Sir Denis Browne (1892-1967) and congenital deformities of mechanical origin," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005 90: F88-91

"Catherina Schrader (1656-1746): the memoirs of a Friesian midwife," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004 89: F560-562

"Dr Christian Kielland of Oslo (1871-1941) and his straight forceps," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004 89: F465-467

"Jean-Louis Baudelocque (1746-1810) of Paris and L'art des accouchemens," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004 89: F370-372

"Dr Priscilla White (1900-1989) of Boston and pregnancy diabetes," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004 89: F276-278

"Louise Bourgeois (1563-1636): royal midwife of France," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2004 89: F185-187

"Gregor Mendel, OSA (1822-1884), founder of scientific genetics," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 88: F537-539

"Galen (AD 129-200) of Pergamun: anatomist and experimental physiologist," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 88: F441-443

"Dr Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) of Lichfield and placental respiration," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 88: F346-348

"Hugh Downman, MD (1740-1809) of Exeter and his poem on infant care," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 88: F253-254

"Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), Padua, and the fetal 'shunts'," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 88: F157-159

"Erich Bracht (1882-1969) of Berlin and his "breech" manoeuvre," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 88: F76-77

"George Armstrong MD (1719-1789) and his Dispensary for the Infant Poor," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2002 87: F228-231

"John Chassar Moir (1900-1977) and the discovery of ergometrine," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2002 87: F152-154

"Dr William Farr of Shropshire (1807-1883): obstetric mortality and training," by Peter M. Dunn, Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2002 87: F67-69

"Sir James Young Simpson (1811-1870) and obstetric anaesthesia," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 86(3):F207-9, 2002 May.

"Stéphane Tarnier (1828-1897), the architect of perinatology in France," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 86(2):F137-9, 2002 Mar.

"Sir Leonard Parsons of Birmingham (1879-1950) and antenatal paediatrics," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 86(1):F65-7, 2002 Jan.

"Jacob Rueff (1500-1558) of Zurich and The expert midwife," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 85(3):F222-4, 2001 Nov.

"Perinatal lessons from the past. Julius Hess, MD, (1876-1955) and the premature infant," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 85(2):F141-4, 2001 Sep.

"Sir Hans Sloane (1660-1753) and the value of breast milk," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 85(1):F73-4, 2001 Jul.

"Dr Edward Rigby, junior, of London (1804-1860) and his system of midwifery," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 84(3):F216-7, 2001 May.

"Wilhelm Conrad Röentgen (1845-1923), the discovery of x rays and perinatal diagnosis," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 84(2):F138-9, 2001 Mar.

"Dr John Burton (1710-1771) of York and his obstetric treatise," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 84(1):F74-6, 2001 Jan.

"Dr Emmett Holt (1855-1924) and the foundation of North American paediatrics," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 83(3):F221-3, 2000 Nov.

"Dr Carl Credé (1819-1892) and the prevention of ophthalmia neonatorum," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 83(2):F158-9, 2000 Sep.

"Dr William Buchan (1729-1805) and his Domestic medicine," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 83(1):F71-3, 2000 Jul.

"Laurent Joubert of Montpellier (1529-82) and his Erreurs Populaires," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 82(3):F255-6, 2000 May.

"Dr Edward Rigby of Norwich (1747-1821) and antepartum haemorrhage," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 82(2):F169-70, 2000 Mar.

"Sir Joseph Barcroft of Cambridge (1872-1947) and prenatal research," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 82(1):F75-6, 2000 Jan.

"Bartholomew Mosse (1712-59), Sir Fielding Ould (1710-89), and the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 81(1):F74-6, 1999 Jul.

"Robert Felkin MD (1853-1926) and caesarean delivery in Central Africa (1879)," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 80(3):F250-1, 1999 May.

"John Braxton Hicks (1823-97) and painless uterine contractions," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 81(2):F157-8, 1999 Sep.

"Professor Armand Trousseau (1801-67) and the treatment of rickets," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 80(2):F155-7, 1999 Mar.

"Dr William Hunter (1718-83) and the gravid uterus," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 80(1):F76-7, 1999 Jan.

"Maimonides (1135-1204) and his philosophy of medicine," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 79(3):F227-8, 1998 Nov.

"Henrick van Deventer (1651-1724) and the pelvic birth canal," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 79(2):F157-8, 1998 Sep.

"Eucharius Rösslin (c 1470-1526) of Germany and the rebirth of midwifery," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 79(1):F77-8, 1998 Jul.

"Dr Alexander Gordon (1752-99) and contagious puerperal fever," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 78(3):F232-3, 1998 May.

"Francis Glisson (1597-1677) and the "discovery" of rickets," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 78(2):F154-5, 1998 Mar.

"Thomas Malthus (1766-1834): population growth and birth control," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 78(1):F76-7, 1998 Jan.

"Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519) and reproductive anatomy," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 77(3):F249-51, 1997 Nov.

"Paulus Aegineta (625-690 AD) and Bysantine medicine," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 77(2):F155-6, 1997 Sep.

"Avicenna (AD 980-1037) and Arabic perinatal medicine," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 77(1):F75-6, 1997 Jul.

"Dr Percivall Willughby, MD (1596-1685): pioneer "man" midwife of Derby," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 76(3):F212-3, 1997 May.

"James Matthews Duncan (1826-90) and the dynamics of labour," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 76(2):F140-2, 1997 Mar.

"James Lind (1716-94) of Edinburgh and the treatment of scurvy," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 76(1):F64-5, 1997 Jan.

"The Holy Bible: insights into perinatal practice in ancient times," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 75(3):F219-20, 1996 Nov.

"Dr John Snow (1813-58) of London: pioneer of obstetric anaesthesia," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 75(2):F141-2, 1996 Sep.

"William Potts Dewees (1768-1841) of Pennsylvania: pioneer of perinatal medicine in America," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 75(1):F69-70, 1996 Jul.

"Florence Nightingale (1820-1910): maternal mortality and the training of midwives," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 74(3):F219-20, 1996 May.

"Dr Eduard Henoch (1820-1910) of Berlin: pioneer of German paediatrics," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 74(2):F149-50, 1996 Mar.

"Dr Edward Jenner (1749-1823) of Berkeley, and vaccination against smallpox," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 74(1):F77-8, 1996 Jan.

"Professor Pierre Budin (1846-1907) of Paris, and modern perinatal care," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 73(3):F193-5, 1995 Nov.

"Dr Francis Ramsbotham (1801-1868) and obstetric practice in London," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 73(2):F118-20, 1995 Sep.

"Soranus of Ephesus (circa AD 98-138) and perinatal care in Roman times," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 73(1):F51-2, 1995 Jul.

"Dr William Little (1810-1894) of London and cerebral palsy," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 72(3):F209-10, 1995 May.

"Dr William Smellie (1697-1763), the master of British midwifery," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 72(1):F77-8, 1995 Jan.

"Dr George Engelmann of St Louis (1847-1903) and the ethnology of childbirth," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 72(2):F145-6, 1995 Mar.

"Ambroise Paré (1510-1590): surgeon and obstetrician of the Renaissance," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 71(3):F231-2, 1994 Nov.

"Dr Grantly Dick-Read (1890-1959) of Norfolk and natural childbirth," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 71(2):F145-6, 1994 Sep.

"Dr. Robert Collins (1801-1868) and his Rotunda obstetric report," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 71(1):F67-8, 1994 Jul.

"Dr Herbert Barker (1814-1865) of Bedford and infant hygiene," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 70(3):F228-9, 1994 May.

"Professor Charles D Meigs (1792-1869) of Philadelphia and persistent fetal circulation," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 70(2):F155-6, 1994 Mar.

"Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682) and life before birth," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal & Neonatal Edition. 70(1):F75-6, 1994 Jan.

"Hippocrates (460-c 356 BC) and the founding of perinatal medicine," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 69(5 Spec No):540-1, 1993 Nov.

"Dr Thomas Radford (1793-1881) of Manchester and obstructed labour," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 69(3 Spec No):327-9, 1993 Sep.

"Dr Alfred Hart (1888-1954) of Toronto and exsanguination transfusion of the newborn," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 69(1 Spec No):95-6, 1993 Jul.

"Adam Neale (c1780-1832) and ergot of rye," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 68(5 Spec No):617-8, 1993 May.

"Dr Ramazzini (1633-1714) and the occupational diseases of midwives and wet nurses," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 68(3 Spec No):337-9, 1993 Mar.

"Dr John Ballantyne (1861-1923): perinatologist extraordinary of Edinburgh," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 68(1 Spec No):66-7, 1993 Jan.

"Felix Würtz of Basel (1518-75) and clubfeet," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 67(10 Spec No):1242-3, 1992 Oct.

"Dr Thomas Denman of London (1733-1815): rupture of the membranes and management of the cord," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 67(7 Spec No):882-4, 1992 Jul.

"Scevole de Ste Marthe of France (1536-1623) and The Paedotrophia," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 67(4 Spec No):468-9, 1992 Apr.

"Dr William Cadogan (1711-1797) of Bristol and the management of infants," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 67(1 Spec No):72-3, 1992 Jan.

"Dr Nils Rosen (1706-1773): the father of paediatrics in Sweden," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 66(10 Spec No):1171-2, 1991 Oct.

"Dr Langdon Down (1828-1896) and 'mongolism'," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 66(7 Spec No):827-8, 1991 Jul.

"Dr Charles West (1816-98) of London and the cold syndrome," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 66(4 Spec No):455-6, 1991 Apr.

"Francois Mauriceau (1637-1709) and maternal posture for parturition," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 66(1 Spec No):78-9, 1991 Jan.

"Dr William Harvey (1578-1657): physician, obstetrician, and fetal physiologist," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 65(10 Spec No):1098-100, 1990 Oct.

"Charles-Michel Billard (1800-1832): pioneer of neonatal medicine," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 65(7 Spec No):711-2, 1990 Jul.

"Charles White (1728-1813) and natural birth," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 65(4 Spec No):395-6, 1990 Apr.

"Dr von Reuss on continuous positive airway pressure in 1914," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 65(1 Spec No):68, 1990 Jan.

"Dr John Burns (1774-1850) and neonatal jaundice," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 64(10 Spec No):1416-7, 1989 Oct.

"Baron Dupuytren (1777-1835) and congenital dislocation of the hip," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 64(7 Spec No):969-70, 1989 Jul.

"Dr James Blundell (1790-1878) and neonatal resuscitation," by Peter M. Dunn, Archives of Disease in Childhood. 64(4):494-5, 1989 Apr.

Historical Articles about Technologies

"A Cautionary Tale about Supplemental Oxygen: The Albatross of Neonatal Medicine," by William A. Silverman, Pediatrics 113(2):394-6, February 2004.

"Incubator-Baby Side Shows," by William A. Silverman, Pediatrics 64(2):127-141, August 1979.

"Entertaining and Instructing the Public," by Bernadine Courtright Barr, Social History of Medicine 8(1):17-36, April 1995.

"The Bloxsom Air Lock: A Historical Perspective," by James W. Kendig, Philip G. Maples, and M. Jeffrey Maisels, Pediatrics 108(6):e116, December 2001.

"Pulse Oximetry: Historical Review and Ohmeda Functional Analysis," by Michael Wukitsch, International Journal of Clincial Monitoring and Computing 4:161-166, 1987.

Historical Articles about Techniques

"De Pondere Infantum Recens Natorum: The History of Weighing the Newborn Infant," by Thomas E. Cone, Pediatrics 28:490-498, September 1961.

"Historical Perspectives of Neonatal Transport," by L. Joseph Butterfield, Pediatric Clinics of North America 40(2):221-239, April 1993.

"History of Neonatal Resuscitation: Tales of Heroism and Desperation," by Tonse N. K. Raju, Clinics in Perinatology 26(3):629-640, September 1999.

"Thoughts about the Past and Future of Neonatal Surgery," by Peter P. Rickham, in Journal of Pediatric Surgery 27(1):1-6, January 1992.

"Surgically Correctable Fetal Disease," by Michael R. Harrison, American Journal of Surgery 180:335-342, November 2000.

"History and Current Application of Intravenous Therapy in Children," by Jerry J. Zimmerman et al, Pediatric Emergency Care 5(2):120-127, June 1989.

"Initiation of Closed-Chest Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Life Support. A Personal History," by Peter Safar, Resuscitation 18:7-20, 1989.

"Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Historical Review," by Sabanayagam Thamgam et al, Acute Care 12:63-94, 1986.

"25 Years of Respiratory Support of Newborn Infants," by Hans Koessel et al, J. Perinatal Medicine 25:421-432, 1997.

"Historical Perspective on 'Exchange Transfusion'," by Louis K. Diamond, Vox Sang 45:333-335, 1983.

"Rho(D) Immunoglobulin (RhoGAM): How it Came Into Being," by Robert Mittendorf et al, Obstetrics and Gynecology 77(2):301-303, Feb. 1991.

"The Treatment of Infantile Hydrocephalus by the Holter Valve," by A. N. Guthkelch, British Journal of Surgery 54(8):665-673, August 1967.

"Assisted ventilation in terminal hyaline membrane disease," by Maria Delivoria-Papadopoulos, Arch. Dis. Child., 39:481-484, 1964

Historical Articles about Diseases

The Rhesus Factor and Disease Prevention, a Witness Seminar held at the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine, London, on 3 June 2003. Posted here by permission.

"Kernicterus in Preterm Newborns: Past, Present, and Future," by Jon F. Watchko and Frank A. Oski, Pediatrics 90(5):707-715, November 1992.

"Surfactant Deficiency in Hyaline Membrane Disease: The Story of Discovery," by Mary Ellen Avery, in American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care 161:1074-1075, 2000.

"The History of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia from 1850s to the Present," by Sergio G. Golombek, Journal of Perinatology 22(3):242-246, April/Mary 2002.

"The Discovery of Phenylketonuria: The Story of a Young Couple, Two Retarded Children, and a Scientist," by Siegried A. Centerwall and Willard R. Centerwall, Pediatrics 105(1):89-103, January 2000.

"Pioneers in the Scientific Study of Neonatal Jaundice and Kernicterus," by Thor Willy Ruud Hansen, Pediatrics 106(2):e15, August 2000.

"Infantile Scurvy: A Historical Perspective," by Kumaravel Rajakumar, Pediatrics 108(4):e76, October 2001.


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